Types of Employee Frauds: How to Identify and Prevent Them


Employee fraud is one of the most significant challenges faced by businesses of all sizes. According to the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), organizations lose an average of 5% of their annual revenue to employee fraud. That’s why it’s crucial to identify the types of employee frauds and implement effective measures to prevent them.

In this article, we’ll discuss the various types of employee frauds, their signs, and ways to prevent them. So, let’s dive in!

Types of Employee Frauds

1. Asset Misappropriation

Asset misappropriation is one of the most common types of employee fraud. It involves the theft or misuse of a company’s assets, such as money, equipment, or inventory. This type of fraud is usually committed by employees who have access to these assets, such as cashiers, accountants, and purchasing agents.

Signs of Asset Misappropriation:

  • Frequent inventory discrepancies
  • Unexplained reduction in profits
  • Excessive refunds or credits issued
  • Unusual cash transactions

Preventive Measures:

  • Conduct background checks before hiring employees
  • Implement strict inventory controls
  • Separate duties to prevent collusion
  • Monitor financial statements regularly

2. Financial Statement Fraud

Financial statement fraud involves intentionally misstating financial information to mislead stakeholders. This type of fraud can be committed by top-level executives, accountants, or auditors.

Signs of Financial Statement Fraud:

  • Unexplained discrepancies in financial statements
  • Abnormal increases in revenue or profits
  • Hidden liabilities or expenses
  • Unusual accounting practices

Preventive Measures:

  • Implement strong internal controls
  • Regularly review financial statements
  • Conduct independent audits
  • Encourage whistleblowing

3. Corruption

Corruption involves the use of an employee’s position for personal gain, such as accepting bribes or kickbacks. This type of fraud is common in industries that involve government contracts, such as construction, defense, and healthcare.

Signs of Corruption:

  • Unusual payments or gifts
  • Unexplained conflicts of interest
  • Unusual business relationships
  • Unauthorized use of company resources

Preventive Measures:

  • Establish a code of ethics and conduct
  • Train employees on anti-corruption policies
  • Implement whistleblower protection
  • Conduct independent audits

4. Payroll Fraud

Payroll fraud involves the manipulation of payroll systems to steal money from the company. This type of fraud can be committed by HR personnel, payroll administrators, or managers.

Signs of Payroll Fraud:

  • Inaccurate or incomplete payroll records
  • Ghost employees on payroll
  • Overpayment of salaries or wages
  • Unauthorized changes to employee information

Preventive Measures:

  • Conduct background checks on employees handling payroll
  • Implement strict controls over payroll processes
  • Regularly review payroll records
  • Conduct independent audits

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5. Cyber Fraud

Cyber fraud involves the use of technology to steal or manipulate company data. This type of fraud can be committed by employees with access to company systems or by external hackers.

Signs of Cyber Fraud:

  • Unusual system activities or network traffic
  • Unexplained changes to data
  • Unauthorized access to company data
  • Ransomware attacks

Preventive Measures:

  • Implement strong cybersecurity measures
  • Conduct regular vulnerability assessments
  • Educate employees on cybersecurity best practices
  • Implement access controls

How to Identify Employee Frauds

Identifying employee fraud can be challenging, but there are some common signs to look out for. Here are some indicators that may suggest that an employee is committing fraud:

  • Lifestyle changes: If an employee suddenly starts living beyond their means, it could be a sign of fraud.
  • Unusual behavior: If an employee exhibits strange behavior, such as being defensive, secretive, or unusually accommodating, it may be a red flag.
  • Financial irregularities: If there are discrepancies in financial statements, missing documents, or unexplained transactions, it could indicate fraud.
  • Changes in work patterns: If an employee suddenly changes their work habits, such as working late, taking work home, or avoiding vacations, it may suggest that they are trying to cover up their fraudulent activities.

It’s important to remember that these signs do not necessarily mean that an employee is committing fraud. However, they should be taken seriously and investigated further.

Preventing Employee Frauds

Preventing employee fraud requires a multi-faceted approach that involves implementing effective controls, policies, and procedures. Here are some ways to prevent employee fraud in your organization:

  • Implement a code of ethics and conduct: Establish a set of ethical guidelines that all employees must follow. This can help create a culture of honesty and integrity in the workplace.
  • Conduct background checks: Before hiring employees, conduct thorough background checks to ensure that they have a clean record.
  • Separate duties: Separating duties can help prevent collusion between employees. For example, the person who handles cash should not also be responsible for reconciling bank statements.
  • Regularly review financial statements: Regularly reviewing financial statements can help detect anomalies early on. Conducting independent audits can also help identify potential fraud.
  • Implement strong internal controls: Strong internal controls can help prevent fraud by limiting access to sensitive information and transactions. For example, implementing access controls can help prevent unauthorized access to company data.
  • Educate employees: Educating employees on fraud prevention can help raise awareness and encourage them to report suspicious activities.
  • Encourage whistleblowing: Encourage employees to report fraud without fear of retaliation. This can help detect fraud early and prevent further losses.


Q1. What is employee fraud?

Employee fraud is the act of stealing or misusing a company’s assets or resources for personal gain. This can include theft of money, equipment, or data, as well as manipulation of financial statements.

Q2. Who is most likely to commit employee fraud?

Employee fraud can be committed by anyone in the organization. However, employees who have access to company assets or information, such as cashiers, accountants, or IT personnel, are more likely to commit fraud.

Q3. How can I prevent employee fraud?

Preventing employee fraud requires implementing effective controls, policies, and procedures. This includes conducting background checks, separating duties, regularly reviewing financial statements, implementing strong internal controls, and educating employees on fraud prevention.


Employee fraud can have a significant impact on a business’s financial health and reputation. That’s why it’s crucial to identify the types of employee frauds and take proactive measures to prevent them. By implementing effective controls, policies, and procedures, businesses can reduce the risk of fraud and protect their assets. Remember to regularly review financial statements, conduct independent audits, and educate employees on fraud prevention to create a culture of honesty and integrity in the workplace.

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